Comparative analysis of plasma generated using LIBS technique for different wavelengths of pulsed laser of a cadmium target

Authors

  • Tuqa A. Khalepha Department of Physics, College of Science for Women, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq.
  • Nisreen Kh. Abdalameer Department of Physics, College of Science for Women, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq. https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5303-398X

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.21123/bsj.2024.9322

Keywords:

Boltzmann plot methodology, electron temperature, electron density, LIBS, SHG, Stark broadening

Abstract

The objective of this study is to analyze the spectral properties of plasma produced from cadmium (Cd) by utilizing the Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) method. The plasma generation process employed the primary (1064 nm) fundamental harmonic laser (FHL) and the secondary (532 nm) second harmonic laser (SHL) of a Q-switched neodymium-doped laser. Yttrium aluminum Garnet (YAG) is used as a crystalline substance. The laser pulses have a duration of 10 ns, and a repetition rate of 8 Hz and the energy outputs were 250 (mJ) and 500 (mJ) at wavelengths of 1064 (nm) and 532 (nm), respectively. The achievement of precise beam focus was accomplished by focusing the laser onto the target material, which consisted of 100% cadmium. The electron temperature was measured using the Boltzmann plot approach by harnessing empirical data on linear properties associated with neutral lines (Cd II), (O II), (N II), and ion lines (Cd I), (O I)  for (1064, 532) nm. The use of an analytical methodology resulted in the determination of electron temperature values of 8584 K to 15068.4 K for the fundamental and second harmonics of the laser, respectively. Simultaneously, the electron density (ne) was determined by analyzing the Stark broadening profile linked to the neutral cadmium line. The plasma characteristics (electron temperature and electron density) are determined by the modulation of laser energy at the surface of the target, longitudinally along the trajectory of the plasma plume.

References

Hanif M, Salik M, Arif F. Spectroscopic Study of Carbon Plasma Produced by the First (1064 nm) and Second (532 nm) Harmonics of Nd : YAG Laser. Plasma Phys Reports. 2015; 41(3): 274–80. https://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S1063780X15030034

Chiang WH, Mariotti D, Sankaran RM, Eden JG, Ostrikov K. Microplasmas for Advanced Materials and Devices. Adv Mater. 2020; 32(18). https://doi.org/10.1002/adma.201905508

Murtaza G, Shaikh NM, Kandhro GA, Ashraf M. Laser-induced breakdown optical emission spectroscopic study of silicon plasma. Spectrochim Acta - Part A Mol Biomol Spectrosc [Internet]. 2019; 223: 117374. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2019.117374.

Mazhir SN, Abdullah NA, Al-Ahmed HI, Harb NH, Abdalameer NK. The effect of gas flow on plasma parameters induced by microwave. Baghdad Sci J. 2018; 15(2): 205-210. https://doi.org/10.21123/bsj.2018.15.2.0205.

Murbat HH, Abdalameer NKH, Brrd AK, Abdulameer F. Effects of non-thermal argon plasma produced at atmospheric pressure on the optical properties of CdO thin films. Baghdad Sci J. 2018; 15(2): 221–6. https://doi.org/10.21123/bsj.2018.15.2.0221.

Yao H, Asamoah E, Wei P, Cong J, Zhang L, Quaisie JK, et al. Investigation into the effect of increasing target temperature and the size of cavity confinements on laser-induced plasmas. Metals (Basel). 2020; 10(3): 2-15. doi: 10.3390/met10030393

Zaitun Prasetyo S, Suliyanti MM, Isnaeni Herbani Y. Quantitative analysis of titanium concentration using calibration-free laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). J Phys Conf Ser. 2018; 985(1): 0–5. https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/985/1/012010

Abbas NK, Abdulameer AF, Ali RM, Alwash SM. The Effect of Heat Treatment on Optical Properties of Copper (II) Phthalocyanine Tetrasulfonic Acid Tetrasodium Salt (CuPcTs) Organic Thin Films. Silicon . 08 april 2019; 11(2): 843–55.

N. K. Abdalameer, N. A. Yasoob, och A. Q. Mohammed, ”Detection of Silica in Rice Husks Using Laser-Induced Plasma and Studying the Effect of Laser Energy on the Parameters of the Produced Plasma”, Int. J. Nanosci., vol. 23, nr 3, s. 1–9, 2024, doi: 10.1142/S0219581X23500783

Ismail M a., Imam H, Elhassan A, Youniss WT, Harith M a. LIBS limit of detection and plasma parameters of some elements in two different metallic matrices. J Anal At Spectrom. 2004; 19(4): 489.

Hussain T, Gondal MA. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) as a rapid tool for material analysis. J Phys Conf Ser. 10 juni 2013; 439(1): 012050.

Mazalan E, Chaudhary K, Haider Z, Abd Hadi SF, Ali J. Determination of calcium to phosphate elemental ratio in natural hydroxypatite using LIBS. J Phys Conf Ser. 2018; 1027(1): 012013.

Ahmed BM. Plasma Parameters Generated from Iron Spectral Lines By Using LIBS Technique. IOP Conf Ser Mater Sci Eng. 01 november 2020; 928(7): 072096.

Murtaza G, Shaikh NM, Kandhro GA, Ashraf M. Laser induced breakdown optical emission spectroscopic study of silicon plasma. Spectrochim Acta Part A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. december 2019;223:117374. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2019.117374

Zaitun Prasetyo S, Suliyanti MM, Isnaeni Herbani Y. Quantitative analysis of titanium concentration using calibration-free laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). J Phys Conf Ser. 2018;985(1):012010.

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) atomic spectra database (version 5), https://physics.nist.gov/PhysRefData/ASD/lines_form.html. (version 5).

Ruan F, Zhang T, Li H. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in archeological science: a review of its application and future perspectives. Appl Spectrosc Rev. 2019; 54(7): 573–601. https://doi.org/10.1080/05704928.2018.1491857

Hanif M, Salik M, Baig MA. Diagnostic Study of Nickel Plasma Produced by Fundamental ( 1064 nm ) and Second Harmonics ( 532 nm ) of an Nd : YAG Laser. J Mod Phys. 2012; 3(30): 1663-1669. https://doi.org/10.4236/jmp.2012.330203

Hanif M, Salik M, Baig MA. Quantitative studies of copper plasma using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. Opt Lasers Eng. 2011; 49(12): 1456–61. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.optlaseng.2011.06.013

Anabitarte F, Cobo A. Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy : Fundamentals, Applications, and Challenges. International Scholarly Research Network. 2012; ID 285240, P12. https://doi.org/10.5402/2012/285240.

Sullivan GO, Li B, Arcy RD, Wu T, Wang X, Lu H. Laser wavelength dependence on angular emission dynamics of Nd : YAG laser-produced Sn plasmas. Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 2012; 21:7. https://doi.org/10.1088/0963-0252/21/5/055003

Torrisi L, Caridi F, Giuffrida L. Comparison of Pd plasmas produced at 532 nm and 1064 nm by a Nd : YAG laser ablation. Nucl Inst Methods Phys Res B. 2010; 268(13): 2285–91. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nimb.2010.03.029

Haq SU, Ahmat L, Mumtaz M, Shakeel H, Mahmood S, Nadeem A. Spectroscopic studies of magnesium plasma produced by fundamental and second harmonics of Nd : YAG laser Spectroscopic studies of magnesium plasma produced by fundamental and second harmonics of Nd : YAG laser. Phys Plasmas. 2015; 22(083504): 1–8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4928376

Abbas Q. A. Effect of target properties on the plasma characteristics that produced by laser at atmospheric pressure. Iraqi J. Sci. 60(6):1251-8. 2019. https://doi.org/10.24996/ijs.2019.60.6.8.

Mazalan E, Chaudhary K, Haider Z, Abd Hadi SF, Ali J. Determination of calcium to phosphate elemental ratio in natural hydroxyapatite using LIBS. J Phys Conf Ser. 2018; 1027(1): 1–8. doi: 10.1088/1742-6596/1027/1/012013

Hussain Shah SK, Iqbal J, Ahmad P, Khandaker MU, Haq S, Naeem M. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy methods and applications: A comprehensive review. Radiat. Phys. 2020 May;170:108666. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.radphyschem.2019.10866.

Asamoah E, Xia Y, Hongbing Y, Wei P, Jiawei C. Influence of cavity and magnetic confinements on the signal enhancement and plasma parameters of laser-induced Mg and Ti plasmas. Laser Part Beams. 2020; 38(1): 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0263034620000014

Ruthandi M, Okamoto Y, Hamada K, Okada A, Nakashima S, Nishi N. Effects of superposition of 532 nm and 1064 nm wavelengths in copper micro-welding by pulsed Nd : YAG laser. J Mater Process Technol. 2022; 299: 11-13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2021.117388

à NG, Elliott G. The effect of ambient pressure on laser-induced plasmas in air. Opt Lasers Eng. 2007; 45: 27–35. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.optlaseng.2006.04.002

Farka Z, Vytisková K, Makhneva E, Zikmundová E, Holub D, Buday J, et al. Comparison of single and double pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for the detection of biomolecules tagged with photon-upconversion nanoparticles. Anal. Chim. Acta. 2024 Apr 1;1299:342418–8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2024.342418.

Downloads

Issue

Section

article

How to Cite

1.
Comparative analysis of plasma generated using LIBS technique for different wavelengths of pulsed laser of a cadmium target. Baghdad Sci.J [Internet]. [cited 2024 Jul. 22];22(1). Available from: https://bsj.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/BSJ/article/view/9322