Emergency Messages Dissemination Challenges Through Connected Vehicles for Efficient Intelligent Transportation Systems: A Review

Main Article Content

Muhammad Akram Akram Mujahid
Kamalrulnizam Bin Abu Bakar
Tasneem S.J Darwish
Fatima Zuhra
Muhammad Aamer Ejaz
Gul Sahar


Recent growth in transport and wireless communication technologies has aided the evolution of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). The ITS is based on different types of transportation modes like road, rail, ocean and aviation. Vehicular ad hoc network (VANET) is a technology that considers moving vehicles as nodes in a network to create a wireless communication network. VANET has emerged as a resourceful approach to enhance the road safety. Road safety has become a critical issue in recent years. Emergency incidents such as accidents, heavy traffic and road damages are the main causes of the inefficiency of the traffic flow. These occurrences do not only create the congestion on the road but also increase the fuel consumption and pollute the environment. Emergency messages notify the drivers about road accidents and congestions, and how to avoid the dangerous zones. This paper classifies the emergency messages schemes into three categories based on relay node, clustering and infrastructure. The capabilities and limitations of the emergency messages schemes are investigated in terms of dissemination process, message forward techniques, road awareness and performance metrics. Moreover, it highlights VANET-based challenges and open research problems to provide the solutions for a safer, more efficient and sustainable future ITS.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Mujahid MAA, Abu Bakar KB, Darwish TS, Zuhra F, Ejaz MA, Sahar G. Emergency Messages Dissemination Challenges Through Connected Vehicles for Efficient Intelligent Transportation Systems: A Review. Baghdad Sci.J [Internet]. 2020Dec.1 [cited 2021Jan.20];17(4):1304. Available from: https://bsj.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/BSJ/article/view/4207
Author Biographies

Kamalrulnizam Bin Abu Bakar, Universiti Technologi Malaysia

Professor (Computer Science)

School of Computing, Universiti Technologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru Malaysia

Tasneem S.J Darwish, Carleton University

Post Doc Pervasive Computing Research Group, School of Computing,
Faculty of Engineering,
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia,

Muhammad Aamer Ejaz, Universiti Technologi Malaysia

Post Graduate Student Pervasive Computing Research Group, School of Computing,
Faculty of Engineering,
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia,

Gul Sahar, Universiti Technologi Malaysia

PhD Student

Pervasive Computing Research Group, School of Computing,
Faculty of Engineering,
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia,


Tewolde GS. Sensor and network technology for intelligent transportation systems. In2012 IEEE International Conference on Electro/Information Technology 2012 May 6 (pp. 1-7). IEEE..

Khekare GS, Sakhare AV. Intelligent traffic system for VANET: A survey. Int J Adv Compu Res. 2012;2(4):99.

Qureshi KN, Abdullah AH. A survey on intelligent transportation systems. Middle East J Sci Res. 2013;15(5):629-42.

Abbas G, Abbas ZH, Haider S, Baker T, Boudjit S, Muhammad F. PDMAC: A Priority-Based Enhanced TDMA Protocol for Warning Message Dissemination in VANETs. Sensors. 2020;20(1):45.

Cuyu C, Yong X, Meilin S, Liang L. Performance observations on mac protocols of vanets in intelligent transportation system. 2009 WRI International Conference on Communications and Mobile Computing; 2009: IEEE.

Al Najada H, Mahgoub I. Anticipation and alert system of congestion and accidents in VANET using Big Data analysis for Intelligent Transportation Systems. 2016 IEEE Symposium Series on Computational Intelligence (SSCI); 2016: IEEE.

Schoch E, Kargl F, Weber M, Leinmuller T. Communication patterns in VANETs. IEEE Commun Mag. 2008;46(11):119-25.

Darwish T, Bakar KA. Traffic aware routing in vehicular ad hoc networks: characteristics and challenges. Telecommun Syst. 2016;61(3):489-513.

Jindal V, Bedi P. Vehicular ad-hoc networks: introduction, standards, routing protocols and challenges. IJCSI. 2016;13(2):44.

Perallos A, Hernandez-Jayo U, Zuazola IJG, Onieva E. Intell Transp Syst Tech Appl. John Wiley & Sons; 2015.

Younes MB, Boukerche A. A performance evaluation of an efficient traffic congestion detection protocol (ECODE) for intelligent transportation systems. Ad Hoc Netw. 2015;24:317-36.

Huo Y, Liu Y, Ma L, Cheng X, Jing T. An enhanced low overhead and stable clustering scheme for crossroads in VANETs. EURASIP J Wirel Comm. 2016(1):74.

Zhang D, Ge H, Zhang T, Cui Y-Y, Liu X, Mao G. New multi-hop clustering algorithm for vehicular ad hoc networks. IEEE Trans Intell Transp Syst. 2018;20(4):1517-30.

Ahmad I, Noor RM, Ahmedy I, Shah SAA, Yaqoob I, Ahmed E, et al. VANET–LTE based heterogeneous vehicular clustering for driving assistance and route planning applications. Comput Netw. 2018;145:128-40.

Mammu ASK, Hernandez-Jayo U, Sainz N. Cluster-based MAC in VANETs for safety applications. 2013 International Conference on Advances in Computing, Communications and Informatics (ICACCI); 2013: IEEE.

Yang F, Tang Y, Huang L. A multi-channel cooperative clustering-based MAC protocol for VANETs. 2014 Wirel Telecommun Symp; 2014: IEEE.

Sakiz F, Sen S. A survey of attacks and detection mechanisms on intelligent transportation systems: VANETs and IoV. Ad Hoc Netw. 2017;61:33-50.

Kumar R, Dave M. A review of various vanet data dissemination protocols. IJUNESST. 2012;5(3):27-44.

Chaqfeh M, Lakas A, Jawhar I. A survey on data dissemination in vehicular ad hoc networks. Veh Commun. 2014;1(4):214-25.

Kaur N, Singh A. A survey on data dissemination protocols used in VANETs. Int J Comput Appl. 2015;120(23).

Sanguesa JA, Fogue M, Garrido P, Martinez FJ, Cano J-C, Calafate CT. A survey and comparative study of broadcast warning message dissemination schemes for VANETs. Mob Inf Syst. 2016;2016.

Ghebleh R. A comparative classification of information dissemination approaches in vehicular ad hoc networks from distinctive viewpoints: A survey. Comput Netw. 2018;131:15-37.

Ghazi MU, Khattak MAK, Shabir B, Malik AW, Ramzan MS. Emergency Message Dissemination in Vehicular Networks: A Review. IEEE Access. 2020;8:38606-21.

Eze EC, Zhang S, Liu E. Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs): Current state, challenges, potentials and way forward. 2014 20th International Conference on Automation and Computing; 2014: IEEE.

Chitra M, Sathya SS. Efficient broadcasting mechanisms for data dissemination in vehicular ad hoc networks. IJMNCT. 2013;3(3):47-63.

Gawas MA, Hurkat P, Goyal V, Gudino LJ. Cross layer approach for efficient dissemination of emergency messages in VANETs. 2017 Ninth International Conference on Ubiquitous and Future Networks (ICUFN); 2017: IEEE.

Wang W, Luo T, Kang H. A Local Information Sensing-Based Broadcast Scheme for Disseminating Emergency Safety Messages in IoV. Mob Inf Syst. 2019;2019.

Dawood HS, Wang Y. An efficient emergency message broadcasting scheme in vehicular ad hoc networks. Int J Distrib Sens N. 2013;9(11):232916.

Huang J, Huang Y, Wang J. Vehicle density based forwarding protocol for safety message broadcast in VANET. Sci World J. 2014;2014.

Fogue M, Martinez FJ, Garrido P, Fiore M, Chiasserini C-F, Casetti C, et al. Securing warning message dissemination in VANETs using cooperative neighbor position verification. IEEE Trans Veh Technol. 2014;64(6):2538-50.

Rayeni MS, Hafid A, Sahu PK. Dynamic spatial partition density-based emergency message dissemination in VANETs. Veh Commun. 2015;2(4):208-22.

Zemouri S, Djahel S, Murphy J. A fast, reliable and lightweight distributed dissemination protocol for safety messages in Urban Vehicular Networks. Ad Hoc Netw. 2015;27:26-43.

Shaik S, Ratnam DV, Bhandari B. An efficient cross layer routing protocol for safety message dissemination in VANETS with reduced routing cost and delay using IEEE 802.11 p. Wirless Pers Commun. 2018;100(4):1765-74.

Selvi M, Ramakrishnan B. An Efficient Message Prioritization and Scheduled Partitioning Technique for Emergency Message Broadcasting in VANET. 2018 3rd International Conference on Communication and Electronics Systems (ICCES); 2018: IEEE.

Benrhaiem W, Hafid A, Sahu PK. Reliable Emergency Message Dissemination Scheme for Urban Vehicular Networks. IEEE Trans Intell Transp Syst. 2019.

Mchergui A, Moulahi T, Othman MTB, Nasri S. Enhancing VANETs Broadcasting Performance with Mobility Prediction for Smart Road. Wirless Pers Commun. 2020:1-13.

Ghodrati AD. Reduces broadcast storm using clustering in VANETs. IRJABS. 2013;7(13):979-87.

Benkerdagh S, Duvallet C. Cluster‐based emergency message dissemination strategy for VANET using V2V communication. Int J Commun Syst . 2019;32(5):e3897.

Jin D, Shi F, Song J. Cluster based emergency message dissemination scheme for vehicular ad hoc networks. Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Ubiquitous Information Management and Communication; 2015.

Ramakrishnan B, Nishanth RB, Joe MM, Selvi M. Cluster based emergency message broadcasting technique for vehicular ad hoc network. Wirel Netw. 2017;23(1):233-48.

Cambruzzi E, Farines J-M, Kraus W, Macêdo R. A Cluster Management System for VANETs. Int J Intell Transp Syst Res. 2016;14(2):115-26.

Ramakrishnan B, Selvi M, Nishanth RB, Joe MM. An emergency message broadcasting technique using transmission power based clustering algorithm for vehicular ad hoc network. Wirless Pers Commun. 2017;94(4):3197-216.

Shah SS, Malik AW, Rahman AU, Iqbal S, Khan SU. Time Barrier-Based Emergency Message Dissemination in Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks. IEEE Access. 2019;7:16494-503.

Ali M, Malik AW, Rahman AU, Iqbal S, Hamayun MM. Position-based emergency message dissemination for Internet of vehicles. Int J Distrib Sens N. 2019;15(7):1550147719861585.

Patil SD, Ragha L. Adaptive fuzzy-based message dissemination and micro-artificial bee colony algorithm optimised routing scheme for vehicular ad hoc network. IET Commun. 2020;14(6):994-1004.

Khekare GS. Design of emergency system for intelligent traffic system using VANET. International Conference on Information Communication and Embedded Systems (ICICES2014); 2014: IEEE.

Raut SB, Bajaj PR, Malik LG. Prediction of vehicle collision probablity at intersection using V2V communication. Int J Sci Eng Res. 2015;6(5):295-300.

Al-Mayouf YRB, Mahdi OA, Taha NA, Abdullah NF, Khan S, Alam M. Accident Management System Based on Vehicular Network for an Intelligent Transportation System in Urban Environments. J Adv Transport; 2018.

Garcia-Lozano E, Barba CT, Igartua MA, Campo C. A distributed, bandwidth-efficient accident prevention system for interurban VANETs. 2013 International Conference on Smart Communications in Network Technologies (SaCoNeT); 2013: IEEE.

Bharath A, Sivagurunathan P. Collision Avoidance system in vehicular adhoc network utilizing dichotomized headway model. 2014 International Conference on Circuits, Power and Computing Technologies (ICCPCT-2014); 2014: IEEE.

Roy A, Chakraborty J. Communication based accident avoidance and congestion control mechanism in VANETs. 2015 International Symposium on Advanced Computing and Communication (ISACC); 2015: IEEE.

Ganeshkumar P, Gokulakrishnan P. Emergency situation prediction mechanism: a novel approach for intelligent transportation system using vehicular ad hoc networks. The scientific world journal. 2015;2015.

Gokulakrishnan P, Ganeshkumar P. Road accident prevention with instant emergency warning message dissemination in vehicular ad-hoc network. PloS one. 2015;10(12):e0143383.

Raut SB, Bajaj PR, Malik LG. Prediction of vehicle collision probablity at intersection using V2V communication. Int J Sci Eng Res. 2015;6:295-300.

Jayapal C, Roy SS. Road traffic congestion management using VANET. 2016 International Conference on Advances in Human Machine Interaction (HMI); 2016: IEEE.

Jeong S, Baek Y, Son SH. A hybrid V2X system for safety-critical applications in VANET. 2016 IEEE 4th International Conference on Cyber-Physical Systems, Networks, and Applications (CPSNA); 2016: IEEE.

Aldegheishem A, Yasmeen H, Maryam H, Shah M, Mehmood A, Alrajeh N, et al. Smart road traffic accidents reduction strategy based on intelligent transportation systems (tars). Sensors. 2018;18(7):1983.

Sathya NP. A sensor enabled secure vehicular communication for emergency message dissemination using cloud services. Digit Signal Process. 2019;85:10-6.

Abboud K, Zhuang W. Impact of microscopic vehicle mobility on cluster-based routing overhead in VANETs. IEEE Trans Veh Technol. 2015;64(12):5493-502.

Abuashour A, Kadoch M. Performance improvement of cluster-based routing protocol in VANET. IEEE Access. 2017; 5:15354-71.

Cunha F, Villas L, Boukerche A, Maia G, Viana A, Mini RA, et al. Data communication in VANETs: Protocols, applications and challenges. Ad Hoc Netw. 2016; 44:90-103.

Sun C, Liu J, Xu X, Ma J. A privacy-preserving mutual authentication resisting DoS attacks in VANETs. IEEE Access. 2017;5: 24012-22.

Lu Z, Qu G, Liu Z. A survey on recent advances in vehicular network security, trust, and privacy. IEEE Trans Intell Transp Syst. 2018; 20(2): 760-76.

Eze EC, Zhang S-J, Liu E-J, Eze JC. Advances in vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANETs): Challenges and road-map for future development. IJAC. 2016;13(1): 1-18.

Mehmood A, Khanan A, Mohamed AHH, Mahfooz S, Song H, Abdullah S. ANTSC: An intelligent Naïve Bayesian probabilistic estimation practice for traffic flow to form stable clustering in VANET. IEEE Access. 2017; 6:4452-61.

Feukeu E, Zuva T. Dynamic broadcast storm mitigation approach for VANETs. Future Gener Comp Sy. 2018.

Lai C, Zheng D, Zhao Q, Jiang X. SEGM: A secure group management framework in integrated VANET-cellular networks. Veh Commun. 2018;11:33-45.

Wang P, Di B, Zhang H, Bian K, Song L. Cellular V2X communications in unlicensed spectrum: Harmonious coexistence with VANET in 5G systems. IEEE Trans Wireless Commun. 2018;17(8):5212-24.