Main Article Content
Microalgae have been used widely in bioremediation processes to degrade or adsorb toxic dyes. Here, we evaluated the decolorization efficiency of Chlorella vulgaris and Nostoc paludosum against two toxic dyes, crystal violet (CV) and malachite green (MG). Furthermore, the effect of CV and MG dyes on the metabolic profiling of the studied algae has been investigated. The data showed that C. vulgaris was most efficient in decolorization of CV and MG: the highest percentage of decolorization was 93.55% in case of MG, while CV decolorization percentage was 62.98%. N. paludosum decolorized MG dye by 77.6%, and the decolorization percentage of CV was 35.1%. Metabolic profiling of C. vulgaris and N. paludosum were performed using NMR spectroscopy. Based on 1D and 2D NMR data, 43 compounds were identified in the polar extract of C. vulgaris, while 34 polar metabolites were successfully determined in N. paludosum. The identified compounds included carbohydrates, amino acids, organic acids, dipeptides, steroids and phenols. Statistical analysis was carried out to recognize the pattern of metabolite variation between control and dye treated samples. Principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis showed that samples treated with MG are clearly separated from the control in both types of algae. Based on heat map data, the level of carbohydrates and amino acids concentrations are strongly affected by bioremediation of MG dye compared with CV dye. In conclusion, the present study proved that CV and MG dyes are considered as stress factors and the studied algae species exert their bioremediation activity without the dyes being absorbed into the cells.
Received 14/1/2020, Accepted 30/12/2020, Published Online First 21/2/2021
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Gomez ZA, Prieto LMA, Jimenez LC, Mejuto JC, Simal J. The Potential of Seaweeds as a Source of Functional Ingredients of Prebiotic and Antioxidant Value. Antioxid. (Basel). 2019; 8(9):406.
Chisti Y. Large-scale production of algal biomass: raceway ponds. In Algae Biotechnology. Cham: Springer; 2016. 21-40.
Meng Y, Yao C, Xue S, Yang H. Application of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy in determination of microalgal compositions. Bioresource Technol. 2014; 151: 347-354.
Silva VB, Moreira JB, Morais MG, Costa JAV. Microalgae as a new source of bioactive compounds in food supplements. CurrOpin Food Sci. 2016; 7:73-77.
Sathasivam R, Radhakrishnan R, Hashem A, Abd-Allah E.F. Microalgae metabolites: a rich source for food and medicine. Saudi J. Biol. Sci. 2019; 26 (4): 709-722.
Salem O, Hoballah E, Ghazi S, Hanna S. Antimicrobial activity of microalgal extracts with special emphasize on Nostoc sp. Life Sci. J. 2014; 11(12):752-758.
Noguchi N, Maruyama I, Yamada A. The influence of chlorella and its hot water extract supplementation on quality of life in patients with breast cancer. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2014; 2014:704619.
Guo M, Ding GB, Guo S, Li Z, Zhao L, Li K, et al. Isolation and antitumor efficacy evaluation of a polysaccharide from Nostoc communeVauch. FoodFunc. 2015; 6(9): 3035-3044.
Sozmen AB, Canbay E, Sozmen EY, Ovez B. The effect of temperature and light intensity during cultivation of Chlorella miniata on antioxidant, anti-inflammatory potentials and phenolic compound accumulation. Biocatal.Agr. Biotech. 2018; 14: 366-374.
Khan M I, Shin J H, Kim J D. The promising future of microalgae: current status, challenges, and optimization of a sustainable and renewable industry for biofuels, feed, and other products. Microb.Cell Fact. 2018; 17: 1-21.
Schnick R A. The impetus to register new therapeutics for aquaculture. Prog. Fish-Cult. 1988; 50:190–196.
Gregory P. Dyes and dyes intermediates. In: Kroschwitz JI, ed. Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. Vol. 8. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1993, 544–545
Chen CC, Liao HJ, Cheng CY, Yen CY, Chung Y C. Biodegradation of crystal violet by Pseudomonas putida. Biotechnol. Lett. 2007;29(3): 391–396.
Subashini PS, Rajiv P. An investigation of textile wastewater treatment using Chlorella vulgaris. Orient J Chem. 2018; 34(5): 2517-2524.
Ezenweani S R, Kadiri M. O. Decolourization of Textile Dye Using Microalgae (Chlorella Vulgaris and Sphaerocystis Schroeteri). Internat. J Innov Res Adv. Studies 2017; 4 (9): 15-20
Mostafa M E, Ghada WA and Hayam AE.Biodegradation of some dyes by the green Alga Chlorella vulgaris and the cyanobacterium Aphanocapsaelachista .Egypt. J. Bot. 2018; 58(3): 311 - 320
Abdullah TA, Mufida A. Decolorization of methylene blue and malachite green by immobilized Desmodesmus sp. Isolated from North Jordan. Inter J Envir. Sci. Dev. 2016; 7 (2): 95-99.
Bundy JG, Davey MP, Viant MR. Environmental metabolomics: a critical review and future perspectives. Metabolomics. 2009; 5 : 3 —21
American Public Health Association (APHA) “Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater”, 19thed. American Public Health Association, Inc. 1999. New York, pp. 1193.
Bligh EG, Dyer WJ. A rapid method of total lipid extraction and purification. Can J Biochem Physiol.1959; 37: 911-917.
Wu H, Southam AD, Hines A, Viant MR. High-throughput tissue extraction protocol for NMR- and MS-based metabolomics. Anal Biochem.2008; 372: 204-212.
Kim HK, Choi YH, Verpoorte R. NMR-based plant metabolomics: where do we stand, where do we go? Trends Biotechnol. 2011; 29: 269-275.
Abdelsalam A, Mahran E, Chowdhury K, Boroujerdi A, El-Bakry A. NMR-based metabolomic analysis of wild, greenhouse, and in vitro regenerated shoots of Cymbopogon schoenanthus subsp. proximus with GC–MS assessment of proximadiol. Physiolmolecul. Boil. plants. 2017; 23(2):369-83.
Xia J, Mandal R, Sinelnikov IV, Broadhurst D, Wishart, DS. MetaboAnalyst 2.0-a comprehensive server for metabolomics data analysis. Nucleic Acids Res. 2012; 40: 127-133.
Hoballah EM, Salem OMA. Bioremediation of crystal violet and malachite green dyes by some algal species. Egypt. J. Bot. 2015: 55(2): 187-196.
Hussein M H, Abou El-Wafa GS, Shaaban SAD, El-Morsy RM. Bioremediation of Methyl Orange onto Nostoccarneum Biomass by Adsorption; Kinetics and Isotherm Studies. Glob. Adv. ResJ Microbiol. 2018; 7(1):6-22.
Acuner A, DilekFB, Treatment of Tectilon Yellow 2G by Chlorella vulgaris. Process Biochem. 2004; 39: 623
Lidiane M A, Cristiano J A, Meriellen D, Claudio AO N, Maria A M. Chlorella and Spirulina microalgae as sources of functional foods, nutraceuticals, and food supplements; an overview. MOJ Food Process Technol. 2018; 6(1):45‒58.
Thorp JH, Bowes RE. Carbon sources in riverine food webs: new evidence from amino acid isotope techniques. Ecosyst. 2017; 20(5): 1029-1041.
Panahi Y, Darvishi B, Jowzi N, Beiraghdar F, Sahebkar A. Chlorella vulgaris: a multifunctional dietary supplement with diverse medicinal properties. Curr. pharm. Design. 2016; 22(2): 164-173.
Zakaria SM, Kamal SMM, Harun M R, Omar R, Siajam SI. Subcritical water technology for extraction of phenolic compounds from Chlorella sp. microalgae and assessment on its antioxidant activity. Molecules. 2017; 22(7): 1105.
Sol R, Fernando G T, Daniel L. Preparation and Characterization of polysaccharide films from the Cyanobacteria Nostoc commune. Polym. Renew. Res. 2017; 8(4):133-150.
Rosales LN, Vera, P, Aiello MC, Morales E. Comparative growth and biochemical composition of four strains of Nostoc and Anabaena (Cyanobacteria, Nostocales) in relation to sodium nitrate. Act. Biol. Colomb. 2016; 21(2): 347-354.
Arora N, Dubey D, Sharma M, Patel A, Guleria A, Pruthi PA, et al. NMR-based metabolomic approach to elucidate the differential cellular responses during mitigation of arsenic (III, V) in a green microalga. ACS omega. 2018; 3(9): 11847-11856.
María A K, Carolina N N, Macarena PC, Graciela LS. Sucrose in Cyanobacteria: From a Salt-Response Molecule to Play a Key Role in Nitrogen Fixation. Life. 2015; 5: 102-126;
Mehta SK, Gaur JP. Heavy-metal-induced proline accumulation and its role in ameliorating metal toxicity in Chlorella vulgaris. The New Phytologist. 1999; 143(2): 253-259.
Wase N, Tu B, Allen JW, Black PN, DiRusso CC. Identification and metabolite profiling of chemical activators of lipid accumulation in green algae. Plant physiol. 2017; 174(4): 2146-2165.
Pilar BM, Torres BLG, Cañizares VRO, Duran PE, Fernández LL. Trehalose and sucrose osmolytes accumulated by algae as potential raw material for bioethanol. Nat.Resour.2011; 2(03): 173-179.
Kirsch F, Klähn S, Hagemann M. Salt-regulated accumulation of the compatible solutes sucrose and glucosylglycerol in cyanobacteria and its biotechnological potential. Fron. Microbiol. 2019; 10: 21-39.
Hershkovitz N, Oren A, Cohen Y. Accumulation of trehalose and sucrose in cyanobacteria exposed to matric water stress. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 1991; 57(3): 645-648.
Syiem MB, Nongrum NA. Increase in intracellular proline content in Anabaena variabilis during stress conditions. J Appl. Natur. Sci. 2011; 3(1): 119-123.¬¬¬
Shamim A, Farooqui A, Siddiqui MH, Mahfooz S, Arif J. Salinity–induced modulations in the protective defense system and programmed cell death in Nostoc muscorum. Russ. J Plant Physiol. 2017; 64: 861–868.