Schultz and Modified Schultz Polynomials for Edge – Identification Chain and Ring – for Square Graphs

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Ahmed Mohammed ali
Mahmood Madian Abdullah


In a connected graph , the distance function between each pair of two vertices from a set vertex  is the shortest distance between them and the vertex degree  denoted by  is the number of edges which are incident to the vertex  The Schultz and modified Schultz polynomials of  are have defined as:

 respectively, where the summations are taken over all unordered pairs of distinct vertices in  and  is the distance between  and  in  The general forms of Schultz and modified Schultz polynomials shall be found and indices of the edge – identification chain and ring – square graphs in the present work.


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ali AM, Abdullah MM. Schultz and Modified Schultz Polynomials for Edge – Identification Chain and Ring – for Square Graphs. Baghdad Sci.J [Internet]. 2022Jun.1 [cited 2022Jun.26];19(3):0560. Available from:


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