Seedling growth of primed seed under drought stress in sorghum


  • Mohammad Omar Shihab Department of AEZ Maps, Planning & Follow-up Office, Ministry of Agriculture, Baghdad, Iraq & Department of Field Crops, College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq.
  • Jalal Hameed Hamza Department of Field Crops, College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq.
  • William Serson Pennsylvania State University. 2809 Saucon Valley Rd, Center Valley, PA 18034, United States.
  • Andre Amakobo Diatta Department of Plant Production and Agronomy, UFR of Agricultural Sciences, Aquaculture and Food Technologies, (S2ATA), Université Gaston Berger, 234, Saint Louis, Senegal.
  • Martin Battaglia Department of Crop and Soil Environmental Sciences, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061, United States.
  • Maythem Al-Amery Department of Biology, College of Science for Women, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq.
  • Hail Z Rihan School of Biological and Marine Sciences, Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Plymouth, United Kingdom.



carbohydrate, chlorophyll, irrigation intervals, proline, water stress


Drought stress is considered a limiting factor during the early growth stages of sorghum. An experiment was conducted under field conditions during the fall seasons of 2017 and 2018. The objective was to improve the growth of sorghum seedlings and their chemical properties to tolerate drought stress. Three variables were investigated: first factor cultivars (Inqath, Rabeh, and Buhoth70), second factor seed priming (primed and unprimed seed). Seeds were primed by soaking for 12 hours in a solution containing 300 mg L−1 + 70 mg L−1 of gibberellic (GA3) and salicylic (SA) acids, respectively, and third factor drought stress represented by the irrigation intervals (irrigation every 2, 4, and 6 days) through calculated quantities to deliver moisture content to the field capacity (100%) at each irrigation. A randomized complete block design with four replications was used. The results showed that cultivars varied in their ability to tolerate drought stress, and seed priming improved their performance to tolerate drought stress compared to unprimed seed in both seasons by giving the highest values of plant height, leaf area, dry seedling weight, and content of chlorophyll, carbohydrate, and proline in leaves. Reducing irrigation intervals led to an increase in the values of the traits studied, except proline content in leaves, which increased as long as irrigation intervals increased. The interaction between priming treatments and irrigation intervals was significant for most of the studied traits. It can be concluded that priming has improved seed performance's ability to tolerate drought stress compared to unprimed seed.


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Seedling growth of primed seed under drought stress in sorghum. Baghdad Sci.J [Internet]. [cited 2024 Jun. 14];21(12). Available from: